Lamoni, Iowa, September, 1889.
THE STORY OF THE BOOK OF MORMON.
BY ELDER H. A. STEBBINS.
[initial pages, 402-403a not copied]
... That the ancients of America were an agricultural people, to the extent and completeness that is spoken of in
the Book of Mormon, is fully confirmed by many who have investigated the ruined cities and the mounds and
monuments of that great people, and have studied the writings, paintings, and traditions of their degraded
descendants for nearly four hundred years past. In this connection Baldwin also makes a statement regarding
the great timbered regions of the western states. By the European settlers these were called primeval forests,
by which is meant that they supposed
that these were the first or original ones. * * * this was long ago discovered to be an error, science having
satisfied itself that before those forests vast areas were covered with cultivated fields, gardens and vineyards;
with hamlets, villages and cities wherein dwelt a busy and an enlightened people. Prof. Baldwin writes as
"The great age of these mounds and inclosures is shown by their relation to the primeval forests in which
most of them were discovered. I say primeval forests, because they teemed to be primeval to the first white
men who explored them. Of course there were no unbroken forests (in the Ohio Valley for instance) while the
land was occupied by the Mound Builders. They were a settled agricultural people, whose civilized industry
is attested by their remain?. If they found forests these were cleared away to make room for their towns,
inclosures, mounds and cultivated fields; and when, after many ages of such occupation, they finally left, or
were driven away, a long period must have elapsed before the trees began to grow freely in and around their
abandoned works. * * * When the Ohio Valley was first visited by Europeans it was covered by an unbroken
forest, most of the trees being of great age and size. * * * The mounds and inclosures were discovered in this
forest, with great trees growing in them. Eight hundred rings of annual growth were counted in the trunk of a
tree (mentioned by Sir Charles Lyell and others) which was found growing on a mound at Marietta, Ohio. In
the same way successive generations of forest trees had grown over their extensive mining works near Lake
Superior, and many of those works are still hidden in what »eem to be primeval forests. * * * It is certain, in
any case, that the period when these old constructions were deserted is so far back in the past that sufficient
time has passed for the abandoned towns and fields to remain (perhaps for centuries) as waste places, to pass
through the transition from waste lands to such great forest growths as were cleared away to prepare the soil
for the settlements, towns, and farms of our people." -- Ancient America, pp. 50, 51.
In the notes along with chapters twelve and thirteen the writer of this series gave lengthy quotations from
Prescott's Conquest of Peru, by which was shown that the Peruvians were wonderfully proficient in the arts
of agriculture as well as being skilled in manufacturing many things. Of that people Prof. Baldwin speaks as
"In some respects the Peruvian civilization was developed to such a degree as challenges admiration. The
Peruvians were highly skilled in agriculture and in some kinds of manufactures. No people ever had a more
efficient system of industry. This created their wealth and made possible their great public works. All
accounts of the country at the time of the Conquest, agree in the statement that they cultivated the soil in a
very admirable way, and with remarkable success, using aqueducts for irrigation, and employing guano as
one of their most important fertilizers." -- Ancient America, page 247.
"Ignorance and incapacity have taken the place (since the Spaniards plundered and ruined the country) of that
intelligence and enterprise which enabled the old Peruvians to maintain their remarkable system of
agriculture to complete their great works, and that made them so industrious and skillful in their
manufactures. Is it possible to imagine the present inhabitants of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia cultivating the
soil with intelligent industry, building aqueducts five hundred miles long, and constructing magnificently
paved roads through the rocks and across the ravines of the Andes -- Ancient America, page 276.
Upon these interesting matters Mr. Bradford writes:
"We are surprised in discovering a continuous, unbroken, chain of these relics; and, reverting to the epoch of
their construction, we are presented with the astonishing spectacle of a great race cultivating the earth,
possessing many the arts, and diffused through an immense territory three thousand miles in extent." --
Origin of the Red Race.
Another writer, Mr. Brownell, on page 33 of his "Indian Races," mentions the "extraordinary remains of large
public granaries" in Mexico and remarks that all these things go to prove that there, "in unknown ages and for
unknown periods, existed wealth, power and civilization but he says that nevertheless these witness give us
but little information as to the actual history of their "long vanished constructor« Of the ruins and the portion
of history which they do tell, he says:
"They indicate the former existence of populous nations, excelling in many of the arts of civilization, and
capable in numbers and power of executing the most gigantic works. * * * They had a long continued
existence, and their government and social institutions were upon firm and well defined basis, while in many
of the arts and sciences they equaled (and in others were superior to) their Christian conquerors. Their public
edifices and internal improvement were on as high a scale, and of as scientific character, as were those of
most of the European nations of that day." -- Indian Races, pp. 42 and 50.
Mr. Brownell further remarks:
"The surprising number of these ruins relics, and the great space over which they extend, indicate the
existence for many ages of a people who possessed all the power which only regular government, settled
institutions, and an established national character can give." -- Indian Races, page 58.
From a letter in the Eureka, Nevada, Sentinel, written from Payson, Utah, April 3d, 1877, and published at
the time. I make the following extracts, concerning agriculture and manufacturing among the ancient
inhabitants. The writer tells of excavations in six great mounds near there. They stand upon an area of six
acres, the largest of them being over three hundred feet in diameter and eighteen feet high. In each was found
one or more houses, with plastered rooms, and in these were human skeletons. The writer mentions that the
floor of one (at least) was a hard cement, which by diligent labor they penetrated and found a box containing
wheat, "which dissolved when brought in contact with light and air." He says that some of the kernels in the
looked bright and these were planted the season before he wrote and they produced several pounds of good
grain. Of it he writes as follows:
"The wheat is unlike any raised in this country, and it produced a large yield. The heads are very long and
they hold very large grains." He adds: -- "We judge that these ancient dwellers followed agriculture for a
living, and that they had many of the arts that are known to us, for we found crockery, cooking utensils, vases
(some of a pattern like those used in the present age), also molds made of clay for casting, stone lasts well
shaped, mill stones, etc. On one large stone jug (or vase) can be seen a perfect delineation of the surrounding
mountain scenery for twenty miles. We also found pieces of carved cedar, and many trinkets, and between
the teeth of one skeleton a stone pipe."
Of the agriculture of the ancient Americans Bancroft says:
"The introduction of agriculture was doubtless of very ancient date. The Olmecs and Xicalancas * * * were
farmers back to the limit of traditional history, as were the lineal ancestors of all the nations. * * * Indeed, as
the Nahua nations were living when the Spaniards found them, so had they probably been living for at least a
thousand years, and not improbably for a much longer period. It was. however, according to tradition, during
the Toltec period that husbandry and all the arts as to the production and preparation of food, were brought to
the highest degree of perfection. Many traditions attribute to the Toltecs the invention or first introduction of
agriculture. * * * Granaries for storing maize were built. * * * Many of these had a capacity of several
thousand bushels, and in them corn was preserved for several years. Besides the regular and extensive
plantations of staple products gardens were common, tastefully laid out and devoted to the cultivation of
fruits, vegetables, medicinal herbs, and flowers." -- Native Races, vol. 2, pages 347, 351.
In the traditions of the Mexicans the name of Quetzalcoatl is famous, as being that of a great leader and
benefactor among their ancestors. And, without a doubt, that name either represents Christ as known to the
Nephites or one of the great worthies mentioned in the Book of Mormon, a prophet and ruler who lived in
one of the most prosperous and wealthy periods mentioned in that book. Mr. Bancroft says that tradition
relates that "he taught the people agriculture," as well as "the art of government," and he adds:
"His was a veritable golden age. Animals and even men lived in peace, the soil produced the richest harvests,
and the grain grew so large that a man found it trouble enough to carry one ear of maize." -- Native Races,
vol. 3, page 274.
However tradition had exaggerated the facts there was evidently a great amount of truth as a foundation for
this story of a better past than they knew, of a superior age to the one they lived in. In his fourth volume, page
619, Mr. Bancroft mentions the traces in New Mexico of ancient agriculture in the way of "irrigating canals
and ditches," and on page 696 he speaks of a field above San Buenaventura, California, containing "some
five hundred acres," which he says is "divided by parallel ridges of earth, and having distinct traces of
irrigating ditches, supplied by a canal." Of these works he writes:
"It is said that the present inhabitant« of this region, both native and Spanish, have no knowledge of the
origin of these agricultural works." -- Native Races, vol. 4, page 696.
Mr. Bancroft quotes from an article on antiquities in Mexico that was written in 1869 (for the Mexican
Geographical Society) by Señor Carlos Sartorius, who speaks of one region as follows:
"History tells us nothing respecting this part of the country, distinguished for its abundant supply of water, its
fertility, and its delightful and healthy climate. * * * There exist innumerable traces of a very numerous
population before the Conquest. * * * For an extent of fifteen to twenty leagues, from east to west, there was
not a span of earth that was not cultivated, as is proved by numberless remains. * * * The whole country is
formed into terraces by stone walls. * * * The small ravines served for innumerable water tanks, built of
stones and mortar; these dams were also covered with a coating of hard cement. It is evident that a numerous
population took advantage of every inch of land for cultivation, using the water gathered in the tanks during
the rainy season for irrigation." -- Native Races, vol. 4, pp. 429, 430.
Of the Book of Mormon statements about the manufacture of clothing, of the existence of horses on this
continent, and of the abundant use of the precious metals I will write hereafter, when space permits.
The Book of Mormon account of the famine reads thus:
"And there was a great famine upon the land among all the people of Nephi. * * * And the work of
destruction became sore by famine. * * * For the earth was smitten that it was dry and did not yield grain. * *
* And the people saw that they were about to perish by famine, and they remembered the words of Nephi. * *
* And when Nephi saw that the people had repented he cried unto the Lord, saying, * * * Lord wilt thou turn
away thine anger, yea, thy fierce anger, and cause that this famine may cease in the land? Lord wilt thou
hearken unto me * * * and send forth rain upon the face of the earth, that she may bring forth her fruit and her
grain. * * * For thou hast said, If this people repent I will spare them." -- pp. 406, 407.
How very like the above is the prayer of the Toltecs in such times of drouth and famine, as preserved in
tradition and related by Charnéy in his recently published work. He save: "And what" can be more beautiful
than the prayer addressed to Tlaloc: "O Lord, liberal giver of all things * * * alas your vassals, the gods of
water, have disappeared and lie concealed in their deep caverns. * * * Lord, have pity on us that live. Our
food goes to destruction; it is lost and dried up for lack of water; it is as if turned to dust. Wilt thou have pity
on the people who are wasted with hunger. * * * Their mouths are dry as sedge; all the bones of their bodies
show as in a skeleton. * * * ? Lord, thou were wont to give us abundantly of those things which are the life
and joy of all the world; all these things have departed from us.
Hast thou utterly forsaken us? Shall not thy wrath and indignation be appeased? Wilt thou leave this city and
kingdom desolate and uninhabited? Is it so decreed in heaven? Grant, at least, that these innocent children,
who can not so much as walk, and those still in the cradle may have something to eat, that they may live and
die not in this terrible famine. * * * Grant, O Lord, that the people receive the favor and mercy at thine hand.
Let them [live] and enjoy the verdure and coolness that are [as] precious stones. * * * May it please thee that
the animals and herbs be made glad, and that the fowls and birds of precious feather fly and sing.'" -- Ancient
Cities of the New World, pp. 119, 120.
EXTRACTS FROM KINGSBOROUGH'S
"Torquemada writes: 'It was likewise found that in some provinces of New Spain, as in Tolonaca, they
expected the coming of the son of the great God, who was the Qieu, into the world; and they said that He was
to come to renew all things; although they did not believe in interpreting this in a spiritual, but in a temporal
and earthly sense. For example, they thought that on his coming, the grain would be of a pure and more
substantial quality; that their fruit would be better flavored, and more excellent in its kind; that the lives of
men would be considerably prolonged, and that everything else would become better in a corresponding
degree.' -- Page 413.
SON OF GOD.
'And in order to hasten the coming of the son of the great God, they sacrificed upon a certain season of the
year, eighteen persons, both male and female; encouraging them and exhorting them to consider themselves
fortunate in being the messengers of the public, which dispatched them to the great God, to entreat and to
supplicate him that he would vouchsafe to send them his Son to free them from their many miseries and
hardships, and from the obligation and afflictions laid upon them of performing human sacrifice, which, as
has already been observed, they considered a cruel and terrible burthen; and it was an intolerable torment and
grief to them, since they performed them in obedience to the commands of their false gods, on account of the
great fear in which they held them.
Page 413: 'It was the cupidity of the Spaniards that first instructed them in another essential doctrine of the
Indians, -- that of the resurrection of the body. And here we must observe that this doctrine is peculiarly
Christian; it is on this point and not on the immortality of the soul, that Christianity differs from the religions
of antiquity, and it is very singular that it should have been discovered in
the New World. Gomara, after stating that the Peruvians deposited gold and silver vases in the tombs of the
'When the Spaniards opened these sepulchres and scattered the bones, the Judeans entreated them not to do
so, assuring them that they would be united in the resurrection; for they fully believe in the resurrection of the
body, and in the immorality of the soul.'
"Herrera says: 'In the provinces of Guazacualco and Uluta they believed that the dead would come to life; and
when the bones of such as died amongst them had dried up, they collected them in a basket and hung them to
the branch of a tree, that they might be at no loss to find them when the period of the resurrection arrived.'
"He also says: 'In the province of Quembava they well knew that there was an immortal principle in man,
although they thought it was not his soul, but a (bodily) transfiguration, believing that the body would be
restored to life. They explained further that its future habitation would be some delightful and pleasant place,
and they therefore used interment like the other Indians.' -- Historia de Los India Occidentales.
Page 414: "Peter Martyr says: 'They report also another thing worth the noting, which will be very pleasing to
your holiness. The priests seem to baptize children both males and females, of a year old, with holy
ceremonies in their temples, pouring water crosswise out of a cruet on their heads.'
Page 414: "Herrera says: 'Baptism has been discovered in Yucatan alone of all the provinces of New Spain;
and its name, in their language signifies regeneration. They hold it so much a matter of religion, and entertain
such reverence for it that nobody omits receiving it; they imagine that they receive a pure disposition in it to
become good, and to escape harm from devils, and to obtain the glory which they hope for. It is administered
to them from the age of three years to twelve, and no one marries without having received it. They fix upon a
day for receiving it which they deem fortunate. The fathers fast on the three preceding days; in the meantime
the priests are occupied in the purification of the mother, exorcising the devil by means of certain
ceremonies, which being completed, the children proceed, one by one, and the priest threw some ground
maize and incense with his hand upon them. And they sent wine in a vase and censer out of the city, with
orders for the Indian not to drink it or to look behind him; and by the performance of this ceremony they
imagined that they exercised the devil. The priest then came forth habited in long and grave vestments, with a
branch in his hand, and placed some white cloth in the bands of the children, questioning the older as to
whether they had committed any sin, which, on their confessing, he took them aside and in certain words
blessed them, holding the branch in a threatening attitude towards them, and with some water which was kept
in a bowl, moistened their foreheads, cheeks, fingers and toes, when sonic presents having been given, the
baptismal ceremony was completed, and the festival terminated in banquets. In addition to the three days
before mentioned, the father and mother remained apart for nine more.' -- India Occidentales.
"Proceeding from baptism to the most solemn sacrament of the church, that of the Lord's Supper, we shall
find a mysterious resemblance to the communion of Christians in the idolatrous rites of the Mexicans called
teo qualo, which literally signifies, to eat God. This ceremony consisted in eating the body and blood of
Huitzilopuchtli or Quecalcotle, under the similitude of bread, which they named Loyoliaytlaquatl, which
signifies 'the food of our life.'
"Torquemada, in the thirty-eighth chapter of his sixth book thus describes it: 'They collected in one of the
principal and handsomest halls of the temple, adjoining the altar, and took a quantity of grain and seeds of
bledos and pulse, which they pounded with great care and devotion, and kneaded and formed into the said
stature of the size and height of a man. The fluid with which they worked and moistened the dough was the
blood of children whom they had sacrificed for the purpose, the intention of which was to typify, in the
simplicity and innocence of the child, that of the god whom the stature represented. After it was made the
priests and satraps took it in their hands, and placed it with great reverence and veneration upon the Cu, or
altar which they bad prepared and adorned for its reception. * * * As soon as it was morning the ministers
and high priests proceeded to consecrate and to bless it, if such an act can be called a consecration and
benediction, although the Indians apply that very term to it in their own language.' * * *
'Quecalcoatle (priest) took a spear head, with a flint, and threw it at the breast of the idol, with which he
pierced it and the idol fell, which ceremony they performed, saying it was to kill their God, Huitzilopuehtli,
in order to eat his body. The priests afterward drew near, and one of them took out the heart and presented it
to the king, and the others divided the body into two parts, and gave the one half to the inhabitants of this
quarter of the city named Tlatelulco, who distributed it in crumbs to all the people resident in these suburbs,
especially to the young soldiers, without giving any of the part of the dough of the idol to the women,' etc.
Botturni says: 'I likewise possess some historical notices concerning the preaching of the gospel in America
by the glorious apostle St. Thomas. They are contained on thirty-four sheets of Chinese paper, and I suppose
assisted Don Crogora in the composition of his work on the same subject, which he entitled The Phoenix of
the West. * * * The above mentioned preaching is so clearly indicated in the histories of the Indians, that it is
even recorded in the paintings of the Choutales, amongst whom a most miraculous cross was discovered,
besides the other crosses which the Spaniards found on the island of Potonchan in the city of Texcalan.'
"The above mentioned histories all declare that a white man preached among them a holy law, and the fast of
forty days, which Emperor Tetzahualcoyotl, in the greatest vicissitudes of his reign, frequently practiced; and
they add that at his departure from them he left a prophecy, thât in the year of their calendar, Coacatl, one
Cane, his son, would come from the east to preach again to them, which was the reason why the Indians were
so disturbed at the intelligence of the arrival of Spaniards, exactly in the year and character Coacatl.
"And I, following the track of the Indian calendars, have discovered that the prophecy of the Saint was
verified to the letter. The Indians, availing themselves of the lofty metaphors of their language, have
bestowed the name Quetzalcoatl upon the glorious apostle, which signifies 'the serpent bird,' intimating by
the bird the swiftness with which he had passed from a distant country to theirs; and by the serpent, the wise
circumspection of the law which he came to preach, the value of which was farther denoted by the feathers of
the bird, which they called Qutzalli; and infinitely esteemed." -- Catalogo de Muses Indiano.
Page 419: "Rosales, in his history of Peru says: 'That in former times, as they had heard their fathers say, a
wonderful man had come to their country, wearing a long beard, with shoes, and a mantle, such as the Indians
carry on their shoulders, who performed many miracles, cured the sick with water, caused it to rain, and their
crops and grain to grow, kindled fire at a breath and wrought other marvels, healing at once the sick and
giving sight to the blind.'
Page 425: "The crosses most celebrated are those of Yucatan, of Mestica, Quaretero, Teheque, and
Teanqueztcpoc. The crosses of Yucatan were worshipped by the Yucatanese in obedience, as they said, to the
instructions of their great prophet Chilam Cambol; who desired that when a certain race of men with beards
should arrive in that country from the east, and should be seen to adore that sign they should embrace the
doctrine of those strangers."
Page 507. Nntes. -- "The Mexicans bestowed the appellation of Topeltzin on Quecalcoatle, the literal
signification of which is 'our son,' or 'our child.' * * * The proper name, Topeltzin, does in fact bear a
significance corresponding, if not literally yet entirely in substance, with that of 'Immanuel,' since 'God with
us,' which is the interpretation of the Hebrew name, means God domiciled amongst us. And the full force of
the expression is preserved in the term Topeltzin, which might be interpreted, 'The Son of Man, or 'God on a
level with man.'
"For the Mexicans believe that Quecalcoatle took human nature upon him, and was not exempt from sorrow,
death, and that he suffered voluntarily to atone for the sins of mankind. They also believed that he alone, of
all the Gods, had a human body, and was of a corporal essence, a notion which we can only wonder whence it
could have been derived; as Las Casas and Torquemada both assert that Quecalcoatle had been in Yucatan;
and there can he little doubt, when we reflect upon the mysterious history of Bacab, that the cross discovered
by M. Dupaix, in the ancient temple of Palenque, was connected with the tradition of the crucifixion.
Page 508: "Quecalcoatle is emphatically styled Father, in the exhortation which the Mexican priest addresses
to the penitent who had come to make confession to him of his sins: 'When thou wast created and sent into
this world thou was created and sent into it pure and good, and thy father and thy mother, Quecalcoatle
formed thee like a precious stone, like a rich jewel of gold, beautiful to look upon and well polished; and thou
by thine own free will and choice, hast polluted thyself, and hast wallowed in the mire of the sins and
iniquities which thou hast committed, and now thou hast confessed.' From this passage it is plain that the
doctrine of free will, as opposed to absolute predestination, was a fundamental article of the religion of the
Mexicans, although in some degree modified by their notions on judicial astrology.
Page 511: "The Deity is said in so many passages of the Old Testament to be jealous of his honor, and to
work miracles for his name's sake, that many persons may feel it hard to reconcile that professed jealousy
with the desecration of his name so common among the Jews, the profanation of his temple, and the human
sacrifices which they offered to him; the corollary of which is, that though Abraham received the covenant
from God, and Moses promulgated his law to the Jews, still Judaism was never under such special divine
protection as to prevent its degeneration into most abominable rites in the Old World, nor, consequently, in
Therefore let it not be maintained that Jehovah could not have been worshiped under the name of
Tezcatlipoca by the Mexicans, and human sacrifices been offered to him in New Spain, as in Palestine of old.
But, even on the assumption that this was the case, let not God impiously be made accountable for the crimes
which men may have committed in his name."
Page 1. Notes. -- "Parkhurst, quoting in his Hebrew lexicon a passage from Plato, cited by Gration in a note
subjoined to the twelfth chapter of the fourth book of his treatise, De Veretate Religion is Christianae,
immediately adds: 'Can any one help thinking that Plato had seen, or at least heard of Isaiah's prophecy,
chapter 59:2? Since in the second book of his Republic he says that in order to exhibit the character of a man
perfectly just, it is necessary that his virtue should be stripped of all external recommendations, so that by
others he should be reckoned a wicked person, should be mocked, scourged, bound, have both eyes put out,
and at last, having suffered all evils, be cut in pieces as a sacrifice (as some think the Greek word signifies)
be hung up or crucified." * * *
"If, however, there are grounds for supposing that the above passage in the Republic of Plato relates to the
sufferings and crucifixion of Christ * * * may we not refer to the seventy-third page of the Borgian
Manuscripts, which represents Quecalcoatle both crucified and, as it were, cut in pieces; and we could with
equal reason demand whether any one can help thinking that the Jews of the New World applied to their
Messiah not only all the prophecies contained in the Old Testament relating to Christ, but likewise many of
the incidents recorded of him in the gospels.'
"Few, we will venture to say, can doubt, after reading the note subjoined to page 107 of the sixth volume of
this work, which contains a list of the names and types under which the Mexicans adored Quecalcoatle, that
this was the case. The history of that remarkable personage, which will be found at page 258 of the same
volume, especially if considered in connection with what is said of Zotic, at page 179, who like John the
Baptist and Elias, went about clothed in a skin, calling on the people to repent, and like the latter who was
dreadful in the vengeance which he took upon his enemies, flaying them alive when he overcame them, will
serve still more to strengthen the conviction.
Since who, on reading of Quecalcoatle and Heremac being joint kings of Tula, of the cup which Tezcatlepoca
presented Quecalcoatle to drink, accosting him at the same time with the salutation of, 'My Son,' of his
unwillingness to taste it, and his weeping bitterly after having drank its contents; of his forsaking his temporal
kingdom of Tula for the Immortal Kingdom of Tlappal (heavenly Jerusalem. --Ed.), being called away by the
God who was the Sun; of his departure on the day to which the sign of four earthquakes was dedicated in the
Mexican Calendar; of hie promise to return again with great power to avenge himself of his enemies and to
redeem his people; and of the belief of the Mexican kings that the scepter should not depart from the
Quecalcoatle cause; but must immediately recollect what is said in the New Testament of Christ frequently
naming himself the king of the Jews, confessing at the same time that he was only their spiritual king, their
temporal sovereign being Herod, which name, due attention being paid to the genius of the Mexican
language, which excluded from its alphabet the letters R and D, is a near approximation of Heremac, of his
prayer to his heavenly Father to let the cup pass away from him, which is recorded in St. Matthew 39: 26 as
"And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O, my Father, if it be possible, let this
cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou wilt."
"And this was pronounced more than once as we learn from the forth-second and forty-fourth verses of the
'He went away again the second time and prayed, saying, O, my Father, if this cup may pass not away from
me except I drink it, thy will be done. And he left them, and went away again and prayed the third time,
saying the same words.'
"This is likewise mentioned in Luke 22:29, to which the painting contained in the seventy-fourth page of the
Codex Borgianess may bear allusion:
"'And he came out and went, as he was wont, to the Mount of Olives, and his disciples also followed him.
And when he was at the place he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation. And he was
withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down and prayed, saying, Father, if thou be willing,
remove this cup from me; nevertheless not my will, but thine be done. And there appeared an angel unto him
from heaven, strengthening him. And being in an agony, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was as it
were great drops ot blood falling down to the ground.'
"Of his describing himself in his speech to four of his disciples as a traveler about to take a journey, which is
thus related in Mark 13:34.
"'For the Son of Man is as a man taking a far journey.'
"Of his drinking vinegar from a reed, as recorded in Mark 15:36; of his declaration that he was going to his
heavenly Father; of the great earthquake which occurred at the crucifixion, which is mentioned in Matthew
27:51; of his sudden disappearance from his disciples, and ascent into heaven, as related in Luke 24:51,
which recalls to our recollection what is said at pages 119 and 82 of volume six of the present work about the
mysterious disappearance of Quecalcoatle whilst hastening on his journey to the Kingdom of Tlappelan; of
the Mexican tradition of Huitzelopuchtli being seated on the left hand of Tezcotlepoca; of his having
previously foretold to them his second advent and the day of judgment, which was to be ushered in with
earthquakes and an eclipse, like those which occurred on the day of the crucifixion, verifying the words of the
prophet Joel as cited in Acts 2:19, 20; and of his promise that the Holy Ghost should descend upon the earth
after he left it, to which, and to the account in Acts 2:1-4, of the descent of the fiery tongues upon the
apostles, the Mexican fable mentioned above at page 108, of the sixth volume; of Quecalcoatle preparing the
way of Tlaloc, and of the latter being the secretary of Providence, who wrote his laws in lightning and
published them with thunder, might bear some allusion."
Having instituted a close comparison between to brief history of Christ as contained in the mythological
traditions of the Mexicans, with the intention of showing that the Jews feigned that the principal prophecies
in the Old Testament relating to the former were verified in the person of the latter, we
shall proceed to point out some paintings in the Codex Borgianus, in which are shadowed in a much more
clear manner than the types of the Old Testament foreshadow the Messiah, the accomplishment of the famous
prophecies relating to Christ.