Charles W. Penrose
Mountain Meadows Massacre
(SLC: Geo. Q. Cannon & Sons, 2nd. ed. 1899)
WHO WERE GUILTY OF THE CRIME?
ELDER CHARLES W. PENROSE,
OCTOBER 26, 1884.
Also A Supplement Containing Important Additional Testimony
Subsequently Received by Charles W. Penrose.
Salt Lake City: Geo. Q. Cannon & Sons, 1899.
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There is a general misunderstanding in the public mind in reference to nearly every subject connected with "Mormonism." Particularly is this the case in regard to "Mormon" doctrine on the taking of human life. It is popularly supposed that the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints authorizes and justifies the killing of men and women for apostasy, or for any grave act in opposition to its interests. This is called "blood atonement" by unprincipled writers and lecturers who wish to deceive the public, and many people believe that this is really one of the tenets of this Church. The Mountain Meadows Massacre has been made to do active duty in the work of deception. It has been charged to the "Mormon" Church and the "Mormon" leaders so many times and in so many places that any attempt to present the facts seems almost like labor in vain. And yet to allow these falsehoods to go unrefuted appears wrong and impolitic. They should be met and overturned for the benefit of the few among mankind who prefer the truth to deception and love light rather than darkness. It was for the purpose of aiding in the correction of error
concerning these subjects that the author responded to an invitation to deliver a public address in the Twelfth Ward Assembly Hall, Salt Lake City, on the subject of "Blood Atonement," and another two weeks later on "The Mountain Meadows Massacre." In the former address the doctrine of the Church on the shedding of human blood was explained and substantiated and popular errors exposed, by reference to the Church standards and the sermons of leading Elders. In the latter address the responsibility of the terrible crime committed at an early date in this Territory was traced to its true source, and numerous references were made to anti-Mormon works, and documents of unimpeachable authenticity and veracity were introduced for the first time in a public assembly.
These addresses have now been published, by request, in pamphlet form, and are submitted to the world for the perusal and judgment of thinking men and women everywhere. And the blessing of the Author of all truth and light is invoked upon these simple but earnest efforts to enlighten mankind, to the end that prejudice may be dispelled, to make way for the everlasting truths which a maligned and misunderstood Church. has a mission to proclaim for the salvation of man and the glory of God.
CHARLES W. PENROSE.
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The subject upon which I have to speak this evening)r has attracted a great deal of attention. It has been mentioned, I think, in every part of the civilized world. Wherever our Elders have gone abroad to preach the gospel of Christ they have been met with the statement that the "Mormon" Church, with Brigham Young at its head, is a bloody church; that it not only teaches, but practices the doctrine of shedding human blood for apostasy; that there is an organization in the midst of the people called "Danites" or "Destroying Angels," * whose business it is to kill everyone who attempts to escape from Utah, or any obnoxious person, "Mormon" or Gentile, who may come into the midst of the people. This has been denied frequently, and those who have made these statements have been challenged to the proof. The proof, of course, has not been forthcoming, because the charge is a falsehood. Still, wherever our Elders go they meet with a statement of this kind, and particularly is the cry of "The Mountain Meadows Massacre" raised against them. It is
* For refutation see my "Address on Blood Atonement."
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claimed that that awful tragedy was performed by the "Mormon" Church, or that the "Mormon" Church is responsible for it; that it was perpetrated at the command of Brigham Young as the leader of the Church, and that it was in accordance with the doctrines of the Church.
This untruth has been repeated so many times that the world, who are not acquainted with our principles and our acts, have come to believe in a great measure that it is true. It has been proclaimed by the press repeatedly. Over and over again the Mountain Meadows massacre has been charged to the "Mormon" Church, and particularly to its former President. Ministers in the pulpit have found this a convenient weapon wherewith to oppose the Elders of the Church in the preaching of the gospel. They could not refute the arguments which they brought forth, they could not overturn the doctrines which they preached, and so stories like those I have mentioned have been told from the pulpit, over and over again, to prejudice the public mind against the Elders of the Church. Wherever the servants of God have gone to preach the gospel, the Mountain Meadows massacre has been thrown in their teeth.
Now, this evening I will endeavor to give a brief account of this terrible occurrence, and then, if possible, to trace up the responsibility for it, show who perpetrated it, who were the guilty parties, so far as I can, and to see whether the "Mormon"
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Church is responsible or not for that terrible deed; whether Brigham Young was or was not an accessory before the fact, or an accessory after the fact; and whether the charge that has been made against the "Mormon" people has any foundation in fact. I hope I shall have the assistance in doing this of the faith of my brethren and sisters, that I may have the Spirit of the Lord to rest upon me to quicken my mind, to give me grasp of thought, so that I may be able to bring forward clearly those evidences which I have been able to collect, and put them before the people in an intelligent shape so that all can understand them.
In the summer of 1857, a company of emigrants, as stated by some, composed of two parties, one from Missouri and the other from Arkansas, came into Salt Lake City. They were on their way to California. After staying here a short time, they were advised to take the northern route to California by way of Bear River. There were two routes by which the stream of emigration flowed to the west from this point. One was northward, and the other south and westward. They were advised by Elder Charles C. Rich to go by the northern route. They went as far as Bear River, but returned and concluded to take the southern route. On their way south they became very impertinent and abusive. At that time news had been received here of the approach of Buchanan's army, supposed to be coming here to destroy the
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Latter-day Saints, to endeavor to break up "Mormonism," and to execute the atrocious threats which had been made by the soldiery in their camps on the plains, news of which had been brought here by runners.
These emigrants boasted to the people as they passed. through the settlements that they were going to California, where they intended to get up a company and return and attack our people in the south when the army arrived in Salt Lake City. It is related that on the way, when going through small settlements -- it was a large company, 120 to 150 persons, differently estimated -- they would rob hen-roosts, and passing through the streets would flip off the heads of chickens with their whip-thongs. At one place, it is related, they poisoned the springs, so that the people who partook of the water died in consequence thereof. Still further, it is said that they poisoned beef and gave it to the Indians, and several Indians died from its effects, and at another place they caught an Indian, tied him up to a wagon wheel and whipped him severely. These are the stories which were told concerning these emigrants; whether they are true or false I am unable to say, but these were the stories told concerning them, and the people believed them. The Indians became very much enraged, and- as this company traveled further and further south the rage of the Indians increased. On the way they met Jacob Hamblin
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and asked him -- as a resident of this Territory, a man well acquainted with the country, who had been among the Indians a great deal -- which was the best place to camp in a certain region, and he told them the Mountain Meadows, at the north part of which, he had a ranch. They went on and camped at the Mountain Meadows. But, as I told you, all the way down they were committing these depredations, by which not only were the settlers very much aggrieved, but the Indians were aroused to the greatest indignation and fury. When they arrived at Mountain Meadows they were attacked by Indians, but they entrenched themselves; they threw up earthworks to the level of the hubs of their wagon wheels, and prepared to defend selves as in a state of siege. According to the evidence presented, it appears that John D. Lee was at that time a member of the Church -- not a Bishop, by the way, I understand he never was a Bishop, but was a member of the Church and looked after the interests of a great number of Indians in that part of the country as Indian farmer. It is stated that John D. Lee led the first attack of the Indians against those emigrants. About this time a council was held at Cedar City, at which were present Isaac C. Haight, Philip Klingensmith, who was the acting Bishop, a man by the name of Laban Morill, and some others. These persons at this council took into consideration the depredations which had been made by this party of emigrants.
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You must understand that the people were very much excited at this time. The news of the coming of the army had reached different parts of the Territory, and a plan had been prepared, if they should come into the Territory, to burn down our houses, to destroy our property and leave the Territory a desert, a barren waste; for the people to flee to the mountains and leave nothing as a prey to their enemies. The people were getting ready for this emergency. You must remember also that the people living here in that early period had been driven from different parts of the United States, time and time again, for their religion; they had suffered untold hardships, privations and persecutions, and now the prospects were that an army was coming in upon them to drive them out again, or pull them up, rout and branch, and destroy them. Of course there was a great deal of excitement at the time. and this body of emigrants having made those threats, cursing Brigham Young, declaring that "old Joe Smith ought to have been killed before he was," some of them declaring that they had taken part in his assassination, naturally aroused the anger of the people. Well, this council was held in Cedar City to determine what was best to be done, whether or not to intercept them and prevent the emigrants from going further south. Some person present on that occasion advocated their interception and destruction. Laban Morill and some others were of a different mind, stating that the proper
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thing to do was to send a messenger to Governor Young to find out what his advice was concerning this matter, and to desist from doing anything of a hostile nature until word was received from Governor Young., A messenger was despatched on the 7th day of September, 1857. His name was James Haslam. He came to Salt Lake City, saw President Young, delivered his message and a letter from Isaac C. Haight, and received a despatch from President Young to take back, and he was told to "spare no horse-flesh" -- to go "with all speed" and deliver the despatch as quickly as possible. That despatch was delivered to Isaac C. Haight at Cedar City on the following Sunday, which, according to the dates that I have traced up, must have been on the 13th day of September. Isaac C. Haight's answer was, "It is too late." It appears that a number of men had been called by Philip Klingensmith, the acting Bishop, and John Al. Higbee, who claimed to be acting under orders of Isaac C. Haight and John D. Lee, to go to the Mountain Meadows. According to the testimony delivered at the trials, to which I will refer presently, most of these men had not the least idea that they were going to Mountain Meadows to perform any deed of blood or to commit anything wrong. They expected to be gone two or three days. Some of the emigrants had been killed by the Indians and they expected they were going to help bury the dead. When they arrived there, according to the testimony
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given at the trial of John D. Lee, a man was sent down into the camp of the emigrants with a white flag, or a flag of truce. Afterwards John D. Lee, went down and had some conversation with the emigrants, and they were induced to give up their arms, which were placed in "wagons and they were all drawn out of the camp. When they had passed a considerable distance away, the Indians, and it is said some of the whites, fired upon the emigrants and they were all butchered, men and women, and none were saved but about seventeen small children, the oldest seven years of age. It is related that John D. Lee assisted in the slaughtering of the wounded emigrants who were in the wagons; those who were able to walk, marching without arms, were set upon by the Indians, and as stated, some white men fired among them. But it appears that John D. Lee assisted in the killing of the wounded persons, so that all the men, and the women, and the older children were slain; there were none left but the seventeen little children, who were taken and distributed around among the people, until Forney, the Indian agent, some time afterwards came and gathered them up and took them away.
Now, I have endeavored to tell you, as briefly as possible, the dreadful story of the massacre. It was a horrible affair. It makes one's blood run cold to think of such a slaughter. One hundred and twenty persons -- some say one hundred an
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nineteen, but it is generally conceded to be about one hundred and twenty -- inhumanly butchered. They were murdered. No one can palliate the crime. I would not attempt to do so No circumstances that existed at that time could, in my mind, palliate that dreadful deed. And to think that any white person should be engaged in it is most horrible to my mind, most repugnant to my feelings, and I know it is repugnant to the feelings of my brethren and sisters, not only those present to-night, but the great body of people called Latter-day Saints wherever they may be.
Now, this horrible crime is laid at the door of the Church because certain individuals, who were then members of the Church, were engaged in this horrible massacre. This has always appeared to me to be very unjust. Why should the "Mormon" Church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, be held responsible for the crimes of a few of its members any more than other churches for the crimes of a few of their members. The Roman Catholic church for the deeds alleged to have been done by members of that church; the church of England, the Episcopal church, for the deeds done by men belonging to that church in early times, and some in later times? Why should the different denominations of the day, as religious denominations, as churches, be charged with the weaknesses, the corruptions and the diabolical deeds perpetrated, not only by members of these denominations,
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but by persons who officiate therein as ministers? Sensible people do not lay these crimes at the door of the denomination to which the individuals may belong, but charge them home to the individuals themselves. They are responsible for their acts, they alone should be charged with them, unless-unless what they do is taught by the church to which they belong, or is allowed by that church, or is in consonance with any of its doctrines. If it can be shown that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches the people to commit murder; if it can be shown that the Church, as a religious body, ordered that massacre, or, after it occurred, condoned it, palliated it, or agreed that it was right, considered it was proper, then we may lay this crime upon the Church and claim that the Church is responsible for it. But if the Church teaches to the contrary, if the spirit of the whole people is against such deeds of blood, if it can be shown that in doing these dreadful things such white persons as were members of this Church who were guilty, actually violated the laws of the Church, then I say that the crime cannot be reasonably and consistently laid upon the Church as a body.
Mr. Stenhouse, in his work called, "Rocky Mountain Saints," says that no sane person ever did lay the crime at the door of the Church. Now, I would like to refer you to a few of the charges that have been made concerning this crime, laying it upon the Church and people, and particularly upon Brigham
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Young; because if it is true that the charge has not been made against the Church, then there is no need for me to make any rebuttal; but if the charge is made that the "Mormon" Church is responsible for this crime, then I am justified and it is my duty to-night to bring forth evidence showing that the "Mormon" Church had nothing to do with it.
On the 7th of February, 1863, John Cradlebaugh, of Nevada, who was once one of the associate justices of the Supreme Court of Utah Territory made a speech in Congress, and I will quote from page 17 of the pamphlet published with the full text of his speech and references:
"I shall publish a portion as an appendix to these remarks that you may see that I am justified in charging that the Mormons are guilty, aye, that the Mormon Church is guilty, of the crimes of murder and robbery as taught in their books of faith."
You see, according to the Hon. John Cradlebaugh, the "Mormon" Church is charged with this crime, and charged in the Congress of the United States, in a speech published to the country.
There was a pamphlet prepared in this city called "The Handbook of Mormonism" -- perhaps you have heard of it before, it is a most abominable book -- I will make a short quotation from it, page 67:
"It is said to be a truth that Brigham Young sent letters south authorizing, if not commanding, that the train should be destroyed."
I will now refer you to a speech made by Mr.
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W. McGrorty in the case of McGrorty versus Hooper. You will remember that Mr. McGrorty, in 1868, contested the seat of Hon. W. H. Hooper, our Delegate in Congress, and made an attack upon the "Mormons." He received 105 votes against Mr. Hooper's 15,068. Let me say here that nearly all the anti-Mormon stories that have been since dished up in various shapes and forms have been taken from Mr. McGrorty's speech in Congress; from that speech Cradlebaugh made up most of his story, and it has been retold over and over again from that time to the present. I will read from page 40 of the pamphlet containing Mr. McGrorty's speech, Mr. McGrorty thought that he Territory ought at once to be put under martial law, and he said:
"This may be the only practicable way in which even partial punishment can be meted out to these latter-day devils. But how inadequate would be the punishment of a few even by death for this crime which nearly the whole Mormon population from Brigham Young down, were more or less instrumental in perpetrating."
I have a work here which was published by Mr. Bishop, who defended John D. Lee at both of his trials. I will make a quotation from this book. page 19. He says:
"I claim that Brigham Young is the real criminal, and that John D. Lee was an instrument in his hands. That Brigham Young used John D. Lee as the assassin uses the dagger, to strike down
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his unsuspecting victim; and as the assassin throws away the dagger, to avoid its bloody blade leading to his detection, so Brigham Young used John D. Lee to do his horrid work; and when discovery becomes unavoidable, he hurls Lee from him, cuts him away from the Church, and casts him far out into the Whirlpool of destruction. The assassin has no further use for his weapon. I also claim that if religious fanaticism can clear a man from crime John D. Lee was guiltless, for he was one of the most intensely fanatical Mormons that infested Utah in 1857. But I do not claim that the fact of his being a fanatic and blinded believer of Brigham Young's so-called revelations excused him- far from it. In place of excusing him it added to his crime. Such insanity as that which fanaticism breeds can only, and should only, be treated by the executioner. And there are many thousands in Utah who are afflicted with the disease that calls for the radical treatment that was administered to Lee."
I will read to you now some opinions of the press appended to a report of the first Lee trial, in a pamphlet emanating from the Tribune office in this city. These are culled from different newspapers.
From the Leavenworth (Kansas) Commercial:
"The Mormons are making a desperate effort to clear Brigham Young of the Mountain Meadows massacre, but they will never succeed in convincing the world that the old sinner was not guilty of participation in the preliminaries to the inhuman outrage, nor that the work of butchery was not
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perpetrated with his sanction, if not by his positive command."
From the Fort Wayne (Indiana) Journal:
"The evidence in the trial of the Mormon leader, John D. Lee, charged with participating in the Mountain Meadows massacre in 1857, clearly points to the unmistakable guilt of many distinguished Mormons, including Brigham Young, Hooper, the ex-Congressman, and others."
From the Leavenworth Times:
"It would be a waste of time and money to attempt to bring the Mountain Meadows assassins to justice. They have too strong a following. The Church of the Latter-day Saints is bound to stand by them. To convict Lee would be to convict the Church and strike a fatal blow at its foundation."
From the Chicago Inter-Ocean:
"The investigation, however, has resulted in fixing an indelible stain on the Mormon Church and settling the responsibility for an act of barbarism which was even regarded as a reproach by the lawless savages of the west, who are supposed to know no shame nor pity, but who protested against the infamy of such a deed."
From the Idaho (Montana) Statesman:
"This circumstance is so enormous and crime so heinous, and the evidence so plain, that it must and will be laid at the door of the Church with Brigham Young as its leader, and be remembered by every man, woman and child wherever the name of Mormon is mentioned."
From the Hartford (Connecticut) Times:
"That much at any rate has been shown by
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Lee's trial, and the guilt of mercilessly sacrificing unarmed men, women and children to religious fanaticism are justly chargeable against the Mormon Church. It now remains to be seen whether American justice will much longer allow the existence of such a bloodthirsty and barbarous organization in the country. The good repute of our institutions is at stake in permitting Mormonism a place in the land."
I think it will not be denied now that the charge has been made that the "Mormon" Church is responsible for the massacre at Mountain Meadows. Now, I claim that the Church is not responsible, and to begin my defense of the Church, I will read to you from the 42nd section of the. Book of Doctrine and Covenants. This is a revelation given through the Prophet Joseph Smith to the Church, February 9th, 1831, to be found on page 170 of the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, new edition:
"And now behold I speak unto the Church.
That is received by Latter-day Saints in all the
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world as a revelation from God, and as a commandment, a standing commandment to this Church -- that is, "Thou shalt not kill, and he that killeth shall not have forgiveness in this world nor in the world to come." In the revelation on celestial marriage it is set forth that when persons have entered into certain covenants before God of a sacred character, and partaken of the Holy Ghost, and received the higher ordinances of the Church, if they commit murder -- shed "innocent blood," it will be impossible for them to be forgiven either in this world or in the world to come; it will be impossible for them to regain their salvation; their exaltation is gone. Now, then, that being the doctrine of the Church, how could the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints authorize the wholesale destruction of men, women and children? It could not be. Such an act would be contrary to the doctrines of the Church, contrary to the revelations believed by its members to be the word of God, believed by the people to be binding upon them, their faith being that if they commit such crimes they cannot be forgiven either in this world or in the world to come.
I will refer you now to a book published by an anti-Mormon named Beadle -- perhaps you have heard of Mr. Beadle before. He is the author of a good many blood-curdling stories, and some of them are told in this book. But I am not going to read them to-night, I will merely read to you
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Beadle's testimony in regard to this point. This is the evidence of an enemy:
"Some months passed away before it was whispered in the northern district that white men were concerned in this affair; and to the credit of the Mormon people be it said, a great horror spread among them at the report.
Now, I ask, how could "a great horror" spread among the people if the people were accessories to this deed? If it was part of the doctrine of their Church, if they were willing and anxious for this massacre, how could a great horror spread among them at the report of it? And why should Lee be shunned by his neighbors if this was a deed that the Church ordered or approved, or that its members condoned or palliated?
I will now read to you a few quotations from Stenhouse's "Rocky Mountain Saints." This work, as you are well aware, was published against the "Mormons." Stenhouse was a member of the Church and afterwards apostatized and wrote a book against the Church. On page 459 he says:
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"The Mormon newspapers very properly declaim against the people of Utah being branded as murderers, because murders have been committed within their Territory, and further they pro- test against the great crimes being charged to Brigham Young."
That shows that the "Mormon" people themselves did not approve of that crime, or of any other crimes of a similar character.
I will next read from page 460 of the same work:
"When the news of that deed was heard, the people north were terror-stricken, and shuddered with horror at the thought of the barbarous crime, and the recital of the bloody work is harrowing to them to-day.
And on the same page appears the following:
"That Brigham Young is by his natural instincts a bad man, or that his apostles and his bishops are men of blood, is not true. Here and there among them a malicious man is met with, but apart from religion, the ruling men in Utah
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would be considered good citizens in any community."
That is the testimony of Mr. Stenhouse in a book written against the Church.
I have a little work here published by Jacob Hamblin, the man whose ranch was at Mountain Meadows, but who was not at home when the massacre took place; he was here in Salt Lake City. He met the emigrants on his way here as they were going south. I will read you from page 46 of his book:
"This deplorable affair caused a sensation of horror and deep regret throughout the entire community, by whom it was unqualifiedly condemned.
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company, and not meddle with the teams and wagons, and not make any efforts to take their lives.
This was the company that followed immediately behind the company that was killed, according to Jacob Hamblin.
I need not tell the Latter-day Saints that the deed was condemned. It was a long time before any news of this massacre reached the north. It should be understood that at that time the southern settlements were few and far between, and the country was sparsely settled. The place where the massacre took place was 350 miles or thereabouts south and west of Salt Lake City. There were no railroads in the country at that time; there were no telegraphs here at that time; and the United States mails had been stopped. Uncle Sam had sent out an army -- or James Buchanan, representing the government, had sent it out, in hostility to the "Mormons," and the mails were suspended. We had no regular mail connection between these settlements, no telegraphs, no telephones, no railroads, no swift method of communication, and it was a long time before the bad tidings reached the north, and when it did it was supposed that the crime had been perpetrated
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by the Indians. It was known very well that the feeling of the Indians at that time was hostile towards the whites, and it was a common expression among them that they wanted to fight the "Mericats," as they called them. It was thought, therefore, when the word came, that the crime had been committed by the Indians, and then a feeling of horror pervaded the entire community, and it was deplored and condemned in toto.
I have shown in these few references I have made that this dreadful crime cannot be laid to the door of the people, and it takes the body of the "Mormon" people to make the Church. The "Mormon" Church is not composed simply of the First Presidency. It was not composed at that time of Brigham Young and his Counselors. They merely formed one quorum in the Church. It was not composed of the First Presidency and the quorum of the Twelve Apostles. It took the whole body of the Church to make the Church. We are told in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants that "all things in the Church shall be done by common consent," and nothing can be called an act of the Church except that which the Church votes for or consents to. Even if it could be proved that Brigham Young, or George A. Smith, or other leading men of the Church were in any way compromised in that terrible affair, it would not prove that the "Mormon" Church was guilty. The Church is not responsible for the acts of Brigham
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Young, nor for the acts of any individual. Each person is responsible before God for his own acts. He is responsible to the Church when he violates the laws of the Church. Every man in the Church, from the highest authority down to the lowest, is amenable to the Church courts when he falls into transgression; but the transgression must be proved and established by the mouths of two or three witnesses according to the Church laws; and if a member of the Church transgresses, if any man holding the Priesthood transgresses, if any man holding anv authority whatever transgresses the laws of God and the laws of the Church, be is amenable to the courts of the Church. Provision is made for the case of every individual, from the First Presidency down. If he does anything that is unrighteous he can be judged by the Council which is set apart for that purpose. So I say that any movement t 'hat is made, to be rightly chargeable to the Church, must be endorsed by the Church as a body, must be done by common consent of the Church. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints never preached the doctrine that it was right to kill men, women and children, as those emigrants were killed at Mountain Meadows. The Church never endorsed that deed, never approved of it. The crime caused a thrill of horror to run through the entire community.
I think I need not dwell any further on the accusation in regard to the body of the Church.
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The principal charges that are made as to individuals center right against President Brigham Young and Apostle George A. Smith, who was afterwards the first Counselor of President Young. Brother George A. Smith has been charged with going before the emigrants down south and arousing the people against them. He has been also charged with counseling the people not to sell to this company of emigrants any grain, or flour, or provisions of any kind. He has been charged with stirring up a feeling of hostility among the people against this particular company, and it is claimed that the effects of his teachings culminated in the massacre.
I will then first take up the case of George A. Smith and see how far he was implicated in this matter. I will read to you. the affidavit made by George A. Smith himself, which was presented at the Lee trial, and 1 will take it from this lovely book of Mr. Bishop's, on page 307. I prefer, where I possibly can, to get my evidence from the works of persons who are bitterly opposed to us
TERRITORY OF UTAH,
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from a severe and dangerous illness of the head and lungs, and that to attend the court at Beaver, in the present condition of his health, would in all probability end his life.
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he preached several times on his way south, and also on his return, and tried to impress upon the minds of the people the necessity of great care as to their grain crops, as all crops had been short for several years previous to 1857, and many of the people were reduced to actual want and were suffering for the necessaries of life.
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I will now read to you the testimony given at the first Lee trial in regard to this matter on pages 33 and 34 of Tribune report. This testimony was given under oath by Jesse N. Smith, with whom many of you are acquainted -- a man of honor, a man of veracity, a man of integrity, well known in this community, whose word is as good as his bond. I will not read you the whole of the testimony, but just that part pertaining to George A. Smith:
"I lived in Parowan in 1857, came to Utah ten years previously. Knew Wm. H. Dame, saw the emigrant train at the town above-named; sold them flour and salt, had flour to spare and asked if they wanted more; they wanted vegetables, but witness had none to spare. Saw George A. Smith in Parowan Aug. 8th; he came in from the north, went down among the settlements, witness accompanying him. A meeting was held in every settlement. Witness attended them all. He [George A. Smith] deprecated selling grain and breadstuffs to feed to horses and mules. Never heard him in his public addresses allude to this train."
I will now read from the testimony of Silas S. Smith, a man that is as well known and as highly respected as Jesse N. Smith, and was, for many years in this community, a member of the Legislative Assembly:
"Know George A. Smith; saw him in August of 1857 at Parowan and traveled with him through the southern settlements, returning with him to Cedar Springs, Millard County. George A. Smith, in his speeches, referred to the necessity of saving
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grain and not feeding it to horses or stock; he disapproved of selling it for any such use. Heard nothing said to discourage the sale of provisions to emigrant trains for food. Witness camped at Corn Creek and found the Arkansas train in camp there on arrival. Some of them came over to witness' fire and simply made inquiries. Nothing special was said. One of the party asked if the Indians would be likely to eat the flesh of an ox that lay dead near camp. Some said that they probably would.
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witness to accompany him. The object of his visit was to preach to the people to lay up grain for their future support. Col. Johnston's army was then approaching Utah. Heard nothing said against allowing emigrant trains to pass through the country.
It is well known by those who were residing in Utah at that time -- I was not here -- that this was the advice given all over the Territory. The people were counseled not to feed grain to their stock, nor to sell their grain to emigrants for their animals, but to save it for breadstuff, because of the coming of the army. These facts appeared in the Journal of Discourses, which I had the privilege of reading in a distant land at that time, and these instructions were given to the whole people, not only in the south, but in the north, and to the whole community. George A. Smith, when traveling to Parowan, preached this to the people in every settlement where he stayed, and when he returned to Salt Lake City he reported in public, in the Tabernacle, and his discourse was published in the Journal of Discourses, previously appearing in the Deseret News -- that he had counseled the people not to waste their grain nor feed it to their own stock, or sell it for that purpose to the emigrants. George A. Smith has been charged with going out in advance
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of this company, prejudicing the minds of the people against the emigrants and counseling the people not to sell them provisions of any kind. The affidavit of George A. Smith and the evidence of the two Smiths, that I have just read to you. show to the contrary. There is no proof whatever, no reliable evidence of any description, that Geo. A. Smith did anything of the kind imputed to him. We all know that George A. Smith was not a man of vengeance nor a man of blood. I do not think I need spend much more time in regard to his case, because, after all, the chief person whom responsibility for the massacre was desired to be saddled was President Brigham Young.
The question now is whether President Young was responsible for that awful crime committed at Mountain Meadows. President Young must have been an accessory before the fact, or an accessory after the fact, if he was in any way chargeable with that dreadful deed. I will first examine the evidence to see whether he was an accessory before the fact; whether he advised this crime; whether such of the people who were guilty were influenced by any instructions or message he had sent to them.
Those of you who are acquainted with the facts in relation to the coming of the army from the east against the people here, are well aware that it was a time of great excitement. The army was encamped out east, and our brethren were in Echo Canyon preparing their defenses. Some of them
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who were out on the plains taking measures to arrest the progress of the army, received instructions from President Young. Of what nature were they? Everybody acquainted with the facts knows that the instructions from President Young were that they might arrest the progress of the army, burn the grass,. stampede their animals and destroy their trains; but they were not to shed a drop of blood. These instructions were given over and over again to those in charge. I have read copies of those despatches in a letter book, signed by Brigham Young. I have seen these instructions with my own eyes. I have heard the brethren who were engaged in that defense bear testimony to this. The instructions that were given over and over again were that they were not to shed a drop of blood unless actually compelled to do so in self-defense. And, mind you, this was at the very time that President Young is said to have given instructions to destroy this company of emigrants!
I have to refer you to a good many documents and papers, for I do not want you to rely on my testimony, but I want to bring forward as clear evidence and proof as I have been able to collect in regard to this matter. I want to read to you now a statement made by General Daniel H. Wells, which was published in the New York Herald of May 6, 1877, being a part of an interview between the representative of the New York Herald and President Young; the former having been sent
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here especially to interview the latter in regard to this matter:
"Everybody remembers how the people behaved when ordered out by President Young to prevent Johnston from entering the Territory at what might have seemed to another man a most dismal moment of his career. The president issued an order which, while it obliged us to burn forage in advance, set fire to the grass at night, carry off animals and do various other things to hold back the enemy, absolutely forbade a single man to shed a drop of blood.
You see, this man that was captured had the document upon his person giving him instructions, and the positive command was that he was to shed no blood."
I will now read to you an extract from a letter published by a company of teamsters who passed through this country at the time of the Utah expedition. It was published on the 5th of June, 1858, in the Southern Vineyard, a paper printed in Los Angeles. It shows the disposition of the people at that time, and the orders of the authorities:
"On the 16th we arrived at a Mormon station, at the mouth of Echo Canyon, in a famished condition
36 MOUNTAIN MEADOWS MASSACRE.
On representing our distressed circumstances our wants were promptly and gratuitously supplied. Here we were furnished with an escort to the city, where we met with Lieut. Gen. D. H. Wells, of the Utah militia, who issued instructions regarding our safety throughout the settlements, accompanied with a relieved escort at each station. We recruited ourselves at Beaver City, and it was deemed advisable to fit up for the journey to California. We would be exceedingly ungrateful in omitting an expression of our sincere thanks and deep indebtedness to our Mormon friends of Utah, and the mail carriers. for the disinterested kindness evinced toward us in ministering to our wants, and for the aid extended to us in our journey to California, without which we could never have reached our destination. but have perished in the desert, or been killed by merciless savages."
This very company of teamsters the "Mormons" were accused of murdering, while the facts were they owed their lives to "Mormon" generosity. Their testimony shows the disposition of the people here at that time and the orders of the President to Gen. D. H. Wells.
I will now read to you the instructions of President Young to Col. Dame, at Parowan, which you will find in the beautiful (?) book of Mr. Bishop's, page 316. I do not think I will take up the time in reading the whole of this circular. I will, however, read the latter part of it. It is published in full in this and other books. It is dated, "Great Salt Lake City, September 14, 1857" -- just about the time of the massacre. I will give you the exact
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date of that occurrence presently. It has been disputed as to the actual date when the massacre took place, the dates varying from the 10th to the 16th of September; but I think I can give you the exact date:
"Herewith you will receive the Governor's proclamation declaring martial law.
At the close of the circular. Which was not only sent to this gentleman, Col. Dame, but all over the Territory, it says:
"And what we said in regard to saving the grain and provisions we say again, let there be no waste. Save life always when it is possible. We do not wish to shed a drop of blood if it can be avoided."
Now here is Brigham Young sending a circular to all the chief men of the militia throughout the Territory, declaring that he does not want a drop of blood shed if it can be avoided. They were to save, not destroy, life. And yet we are expected to believe that right at that time, or a day or two previously, President Young sent down word to our brethren in the same neighborhood to kill off the emigrants! The story does not hold very well together in the light of this circular, from which I have just read.
I will now refer again to Mr. Stenhouse's book, "Rocky Mountain Saints." You must excuse me
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if I take up a good deal of time in reading extracts. My object is to establish the facts, as far as possible, from the testimony of persons not connected with us. I read from Stenhouse's book, page 369:
"The Prophet had given orders that no blood was to be shed under any temptation or provocation, save only in the extremity of self-defense."
That is the testimony of T. B. H. Stenhouse, an enemy. I will refer you again to the same book, page 385. It is an extract from an address by President Young:
"Should I take a course to waste life? We are in duty bound to preserve life -- to preserve ourselves on the earth -- consequently we must use policy and follow in the counsel gived us, in order to preserve our lives."
This address was delivered at the time when the army was coming in. I have read this extract to show you that the policy of President Young was to preserve life, notwithstanding there was a hostile army right on our borders, coming for the express purpose of destroying the people, yet the policy of President Young was not to shed blood.
Next, I will read to you an extract from the Lee trial -- remarks made by Mr. Sumner Howard, the U. S. prosecuting attorney at the second trial of John D. Lee:
He proposed to prove that John D. Lee. without any authority from any council or officer, but in direct opposition to the feelings and wishes of the officers of the Mormon Church, had gone to the
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Mountain Meadows, where the Indians were then encamped, accompanied only by a little Indian boy, and had assumed command of the Indians, whom he had induced, by promises of great booty, to attack these emigrants; that in his attack on the emigrants he was repulsed; that finding he could not get the emigrants out, he sent word to the various settlements of southern Utah for men to be sent to him, representing that the men were needed for various purposes, to some saying the Indians had attacked the emigrants and it was necessary to have men sent to draw off the Indians, to others that men were necessary to protect the emigrants, and still others that the emigrants were all killed, and that they were required to bury the dead; these men went in good faith to perform a humane act, that he had arranged with the Indians to bring the emigrants out from their corral, or fort, by means of a flag of truce; that by this act of perfidy he had induced the emigrants to give up their arms and place themselves under his protection, loading the arms and the wounded with the helpless children into two wagons, which he had ordered up for the purpose; that he then started the wagons ahead, following them himself, and the women following next, the men bringing up the rear in single file; that Lee, after having traveled from three quarters of a mile to a mile, gave the order to fire, and the slaughter commenced; that Lee shot one woman with his rifle, and brained another woman; then drawing his pistol, shot another, and seizing a man by the collar and drawing him out of a wagon, cut his throat; that he gathered up the property of the emigrants and took it to his own place, using and selling it for his own benefit and use. All these
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charges against John D. Lee, he (District Attorney Howard) proposed to prove to the jury by competent, testimony, beyond reasonable doubt, or beyond any doubt, and thought no appeal to the jury would be required to induce them to give a verdict in accordance with the evidence."
I will now read to you a passage from Lee's confession, or reported confession. John D. Lee made a great many so-called "confessions" which are rather contradictory. This confession is supposed to be the only true and genuine one." Whether it is or not I cannot say. My opinion is from what I have read, that John D. Lee furnished particulars and data to Mr. Bishop, who worked them up with some of his own notions and fabrications into this book. I cite this work of an enemy to show that President Young was riot an accessory before the fact. I read from Bishop's book, page 233:
"Major Higbee said 'Here are the orders' and handed me a paper from Haight. It was in substance that it was the orders of Haight to decoy the emigrants from their position and kill all of them that could talk. This order was in writing. Higbee handed it to me and read it, and then dropped it on the ground, saying "cannot do this." The substance of the orders were that the emigrants should be decoyed from their stronghold and all exterminated so that no one would be left to tell the tale and then the authorities could say it was done by the Indians."
You see this order did not come from Brigham
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Young. If it was given at all it come from Haight. We will now turn to page 245 of the same work:
"After the dead were searched the brethren were called up and Higbee and Klingensmith, as well as, myself made speeches, and ordered the people to keep the matter a secret from the entire world. Not to tell their wives, or their most intimate friends, and we pledged ourselves to keep everything relating to the affair a secret through life. We also took the most binding oaths to stand by each other, and to always insist that the massacre was committed by Indians alone. * * *
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"Col. Dame was much excited. He choked up and would have gone away, but he knew Haight was a man of determination and would not stand any foolishness."
You see that there was a quarrel, according to John D. Lee, between Haight and Dame in regard to this matter right on the field near where the dead were lying. Dame disclaimed having anything whatever to do with the crime; but Haight, as 1 have read to you, tried to place the responsibility upon him. Dame declared he had had nothing to do with it, that he had given no orders concerning it, and threatened to report the details to the authorities of the Church. Haight immediately was afraid, and asked him what he was going to report. Now, then, if Brigham Young had given orders to have the emigrants massacred, why should Haight be in such a state of alarm at the declaration of Dame that he was going to report the matter to President Young? We are asked to believe that President Young ordered that massacre. Yet here we learn by the confession of John D. Lee, who states that he heard this quarrel between Haight and Dame, that Haight, who had given the order, wanted to lay the blame upon Dame, and that Haight was afraid to have the massacre reported to the authorities of the Church. Here is an account of some speeches made 'Just after this (page 347):
"The speeches were first -- thanks to God for
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delivering our enemies into our hands; next, thanking the brethren for their zeal in God's cause; and then the necessity of always saying the Indians did it alone, and that the Mormons had nothing to do with it. The speeches, however, were in the shape of exhortation and commands to keep the whole matter secret from everyone but Brigham Young. It was voted unanimously that any man who should divulge the secret, or tell. who was present, or do anything that would lead to a discovery of the truth, should suffer death.
Now, you see, there was an agreement that this matter should be reported to President Young, and yet we are asked to believe that President Young had ordered it. Dame and Haight quarreled over it. Haight feared that it would be reported just as it was, and the whole body of men were sworn to keep it entirely secret. John D. Lee was selected to go to President Young and make a report. We will find out presently what kind of a report Lee made. John D. Lee says, page 250:
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"The first time I heard that a messenger had been sent to Brigham Young for instructions as to what should be clone with the emigrants, was three or four days after I had returned home from the Meadows. Then I heard of it from Isaac C. Haight, when he came to my house and had a talk with me. He said: "'We are in a muddle. Haslam has returned from Salt Lake City, with orders from Brigham Young to let the emigrants pass in safety.'
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and not expose any more of the brethren than you find absolutely necessary."
Now, here are the instructions of Haight to John D. Lee. Here is Haight trying to cover up from President Young the crime which we are asked to believe President Young had ordered. The message had come saying that the emigrants were to be allowed to pass. But Haight wanted John D. Lee to go to Salt Lake City and fix it up; make a report to the President so as to allay his feelings. John D. Lee subsequently agreed to do this. Now I will cite to you the testimony of Laban Morrill in regard to the dispatch from President Young to Haight. I will refer again to Bishop's book, page 320. An objection was made on the part of the defense at the second Lee trial to the introduction of this testimony, but the objection was overruled:
"As I said, there appeared to be some confusion in that council. I inquired in a friendly way, what was up. I was told that there was an emigrant train that passed along down to near Mountain Meadows, and that they had made threats in regard to us as a people -- said they would destroy every d___d Mormon. There was an army coming on the north and south, and it created some little excitement. I made two or three replies in a kind of debate of measures that were taken into consideration, discussing the object. what method we thought best to take in regard to protecting the lives of the citizens.
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"My objections Were not coincided with. At last we touched upon the topic like this: We should still keep quiet, and a dispatch should be sent to Governor Young to know what would be the best course. The vote was unanimous. I considered it so. It seemed to be the understanding that on the coming morning or next day there should be a messenger dispatched. I took some pains to inquire and know if it would be sent in the morning. The papers were said to be made out, and Governor Young should be informed, and no hostile course pursued till his return. I returned back to Fort Johnson, feeling that all was well. About eight and forty hours before the messenger returned, business called me to Cedar City, and I learned that the job had been done, that is the destruction of the emigrants had taken place. I can't give any further evidence on the subject at present.
I will now read to you the testimony of James Haslam:
"James Haslam, of Wellsville, Cache Valley, was sworn. lie lived in Cedar City in 1857; was ordered by Haight to take a message to President Young with all speed; knew the contents of the message; left Cedar City on Monday, September 7, 1857, between 5 and 6 p. m., and arrived at Salt Lake on Thursday at I I a. m.; started back at 3 p. m., and reached Cedar about 11 a. m. Sunday morning, September 13th; delivered the answer from President Young to Haight, who said it was too late. Witness testified that when leaving Salt
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Lake to return, President Young said to him: 'Go with all speed, spare no horseflesh. The emigrants must not be meddled with, if it takes all Iron County to prevent it. They must go free and unmolested.' Witness knew the contents of the answer. He got back with the message the Sun- day after the 'massacre and reported to Haight, who said, It is too late.'"
That is the testimony of James Haslam at the second Lee trial. According to what I have shown you President Young could not have been an accessory before the fact. lie knew nothing about this matter until the dispatch came from Haight. As soon as he received that dispatch he sent back word -- and told the messenger to spare no horseflesh in returning -- that the emigrants must not be meddled with. and that if it took all Iron County to prevent them being interrupted by the Indians. it must be used for their protection. That is the testimony of James Haslam.
We have been tantalized a great deal in regard to the dispatch or letter sent by President Young by this messenger Haslam. As I had never seen it published I supposed that it could not be found. I had learned from President Young's testimony that the letter sent to him from Haight by Haslam was lost. But the evidence is clear that he sent a dispatch in reply to Haight at that time, and since President Young usually kept a copy of his correspondence, I supposed that this dispatch or a copy of it was in existence. The Tribune of this city,
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over and over again, has challenged the "Mormons" to produce a copy of the dispatch or letter that Brigham Young sent by James Haslam. James Haslam testified that he delivered the dispatch to Haight, but Haight said it was too late. But it is objected, "Why don't you produce the dispatch?" Now, I have taken pains to hunt this matter up, and succeeded in getting the letter-book in which the correspondence of President Young at that period was copied, and found this identical dispatch in its order of date, and I am going to read it to you tonight. I read the letter myself in the copying-book, from Aug. 20, 1856 to Jan. 6, 1858, filed away in the President's office; I have obtained a certified copy of it and I know that it is correct:
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emigration trains passing through our settlements, we must not interfere with them until they are first notified to keep away. You must not meddle with them. The Indians we expect will do as they please, but you should try and preserve good feelings with them. There are no other trains going south that I know of. If those who are there will leave, let them go in peace. While we should be on the alert, on hand, and always ready, we should also possess ourselves in patience, preserving our selves and property, ever remembering that God rules. He has overruled for our deliverance thus once again, and He will always do so if we live our religion and be united in our faith and good works.
JOSIAH M. GIBBS' 1910 RESPONSE:
In September, 1875, Brigham Young was summoned to appear as a witness in the first trial of John D. Lee. The condition of his health would not permit of his attendance, and in lieu thereof, certain interrogatories were forwarded to him at Salt Lake City, and which were answered by him under oath.
One question, only, and its answer are all that is required to prove that Brigham Young, or other affiants, testified falsely.
Question ninth - "Did John D. Lee report to you at any time after this massacre what had been done at that massacre, and if so, what reply did you make to him in reference thereto?"
Answer -- "Within some two or three months after the massacre he called at my office and had much to say with regard to the Indians, their being stirred up to anger and threatening the settlements of the whites, and then commenced giving an account of the massacre. I told him to stop, as from what I had already heard by rumor, I did not wish my feelings harrowed up with a recital of detail."
With seeming glee Elder Penrose quotes the above affidavit to prove that it was some time after the massacre before President Young knew anything about the affair further than "rumor," and that he would not permit Lee to tell the story. Then, with singular stupidity, Elder Penrose proceeds to prove that President Young was a falsifier by putting his son's affidavit against that of his father's. Elder Penrose's hysterical zeal to also prove that Brigham Young did not know that the massacre had been concocted and perpetrated by the presiding priesthood of Iron county, led him into the fatal error of securing an affidavit from John W. Young to prove that Lee charged the massacre to the Indians. But that affidavit proved too much in another respect.
According to his affidavit, John W. Young, son of Brigham Young, was 13 years old at the time of the massacre, and was office boy for his father. After stating those facts Mr. Young continued as follows:
I distinctly remember one day in the latter part of September, 1857, being in my father's office when John D. Lee, travel worn, entered the office and asked for a private interview with Governor Young.
It is distinctly impressed on my mind beyond the power of time to efface, how Lee described the terrible deed which he said was committed by the Indians at Mountain Meadows.
From John W. Young's affidavit it is learned that Lee's visit was made immediately after the massacre, and that he did not "stop" at the command of President Young.
Not satisfied with pitting the affidavit of John W. Young against that of his father's, Elder Penrose secured a statement from Apostle Wilford Woodruff that, in every respect, supported the statements made by the "prophet's" son.
So eager was Elder Penrose to prove his stupidity and to fix the date of Lee's arrival at President Young's office, that he examined the voluminous diary kept by Apostle Woodruff and discovered that it was on September 29, 1857, or thirteen days after the tragedy at Mountain Meadows. No comment on the Woodruff and John W. Young contradictions to President Young's replies to the interrogatories in the Lee trial, and to his letter to James W. Denver, are necessary.
Elder Penrose's discourse in the twelfth ward was delivered more than seven years after the excution of Lee, and the world then knew a portion of the truth relative to the massacre. And in his anxiety to mitigate the hideousness of the crime, he committed the usual Mormon blunder of attacking the moral status of the murdered emigrants. If that were not his intent why did he quote the following paragraph from Apostle Woodruff's diary, and which had not the slightest bearing on the subject matter of his discourse?
Brother Lee said he did not think there was a drop of innocent blood in the camp, for he had two of the children -- (of the seventeen that were saved) in his house, and he could get but one to kneel down at prayer time, and the other would laugh at her for doing it, and they would swear like pirates.
(You elders of Israel will go into the canyons, and curse and swear, G__damn and curse your oxen, and swear by him who created you. I am telling you the truth. Yes, you rip and swear and curse as bad as any pirates ever did.
Doubtless Apostle Woodruff had, for the moment, forgotten the above selection from a sermon by Brigham Young in the early fifties Journal of Discourses, Vol. 1, page 211, and that "swearing like pirates" was not regarded as evidence that there "was not a drop of innocent blood" among the "elders of Israel"; and that profanity among the Saints in 1853 was not regarded as sufficient cause for blood atoning them. But the "elders of Israel" had entered into the "new and everlasting covenant," and were, therefore, immune from all crimes "except the shedding of innocent blood" or the blood of the Mormon prophets.
If the Indians, as alleged by John W. Young and Apostle Woodruff, had been the sole perpetrators of the crime, why the attempt to partially condone the crime of the redskins who knew absolutely nothing, and cared less, of the moral status of those whom they murdered? The more the "prophets" and their agents squirm and wriggle in their attempts to get from under the fearful responsibility for that crime the deeper do they sink into the quicksands of perfidy and guilt.
The massacre occurred on or about September 16, and John D. Lee was at President Young's office on the 29th. During the interim Lee remained a part of one day at the Meadows; it required one day for Lee to reach his home with the girls, and it would require full ten days to make the trip from Harmony to Salt Lake City. Therefore, the girls might, possibly, have been at Lee's residence two days before his departure for Salt Lake City. It was probably the second day after the massacre when Lee first asked the girls to join the family in prayers. Before those children, less than 8 years old, there was ever the vision of the slaughter. No doubt the girls had witnessed the murder of their mother, or mothers. Very likely they were clinging to their skirts when Lee and the others struck them down. Doubtless they had seen their older brothers and sisters slain by those monster fanatics of an alien church. Very likely they had heard McMurdy's frenzied cry of "O, Lord, my God, receive their spirits, it is for thy kingdom that I do this!" Is there wonder, then, that but one of those children knelt at prayer with the inhuman fanatic whose hands were red with the blood of their parents?
And those children "swore like pirates!" On the 16th of this month, September, 1910 -- the fifty-third anniversary of the massacre, while on a visit to the Mountain Meadows for the purpose of investigating the condition of the emigrants' grave, and to secure photographs of the grave and vicinity, the writer stood by the cairn on the desert. In imagination, the emigrants filed away up the valley under a flag of truce. Again the silence of that mountain solitude was broken by the cries of women, the screams of children and the rattle of firearms held by those wretched victims of blind obedience. Even after the lapse of fifty-three years, "swearing" would not only have been a relief, but would have been appropriate. Who, then, but arch-hypocrites could blame those girls for swearing? And who, but fiends incarnate, would claim that "there was not a drop of innocent blood in the camp" because one of those children refused to worship at the shrine of a god who would permit the representatives of his "holy prophets" to commit such a diabolical crime?
Apologists for, and defenders, by implication, of the Mountain Meadows massacre have ever attempted to palliate that crime by the besmirchment of the characters of the slain! Out upon such driveling, sickening cant and hypocrisy!
In defiance of the testimony of Jacob Hamblin during the second trial of Lee to the effect that "Pretty soon after it (the massacre) happened," he ''told them (President Young and George A. Smith) everything I could," and his story was complete, Apostle Woodruff, in his affidavit, used by Elder Penrose, affirms that neither he nor Brigham Young knew anything about Lee's participation in the massacre until the year 1870, when they obtained the information from Apostle Erastus Snow of St. George, Utah! (It should be remembered that Jacob Hamblin's report was made to Brigham Young and George A. Smith.) Subsequently Lee was excommunicated in Salt Lake City, instead of in one of the southern stakes of Zion, where he could have secured witnesses, and have been ''present in court." The haste and irregularity of Lee's excommunication prove that the belated act was forced by popular clamor -- that it was merely an expedient, or grand stand play, with the express purpose of deceiving the people of the United States!